MANY SMALL ENERGIES

 

A possible project for the energetic self-sufficiency of a small community with integrated production of energy and respect and recovery of the environmen

 

 

AIM: to make students responsible protagonists in the energetic choices and to accustom them to conceive a new lifestyle and new architectonic shapes


 ABSTRACT

The project consists in a game open to senior classes of junior secondary schools (to get aware of energy problems) and to the last three classes of senior secondary schools (with differentiated paths following their specific course of studies).

 

Sudents will have to make self-sufficient under the energetic profile a small village on the mountains of approximately 5000 inhabitants, with offices, living units, as well as agricultural, commercial, handicraft and touristic activities. We assume that all kinds of alternative energetic sources are available in a territory placed to a proper altitude. That makes it possible to join the project also by studying single energetic sources, their applications and the changes they bring into our lifestyle, our architecture and the landscape we live in.

 

Technology-oriented schools can decide to use one of the available energetic sources to plan systems for the production of electric power for several kinds of customers, as an example for one single living unit, a block of flats or any type of activity, for a group of houses and/or productive and commercial activities. Some schools could work on the distribution of the energy that has been produced. We assume that the minimal power availability for the energetic self-sufficiency is 3,5 MW; therefore, we consider as successful only plans respecting that condition.

 

 

Abstract: Si tratta di un gioco a cui possono partecipare sia le classi terze della scuola media inferiore per un primo approccio divulgativo del problema, sia, sebbene in modo differenziato secondo l’indirizzo del corso di studi, le classi del triennio delle scuole medie superiori.

Ci siamo immaginati di dover rendere  autosufficiente sotto il profilo energetico una piccola comunità montana di circa 5000 abitanti, dove sono presenti oltre unità abitative anche uffici, attività artigianali, agricole, commerciali e turistiche. Si può pensare che siano disponibili tutte le fonti energetiche alternative possibili in un territorio collocato ad una adeguata quota sul livello del mare. Ciò rende possibile la partecipazione al progetto anche col solo studio delle singole fonti energetiche, delle loro applicazioni e dei cambiamenti nel nostro stile di vita, nella nostra architettura e nel paesaggio che queste applicazioni possono introdurre.

Le scuole ad indirizzo tecnico possono scegliere di progettare, utilizzando una delle fonti energetiche disponibili, impianti per la produzione di energia elettrica, per le varie tipologie di utenti, ad esempio per una singola abitazione, per un condominio, per un qualsiasi tipo di attività, per un agglomerato di abitazioni e/o di attività produttive e terziarie. Qualche scuola si potrebbe  occupare della distribuzione dell’energia prodotta.

Si ritiene che per l’autosufficienza energetica si debba arrivare alla disponibilità minima di una potenza di 3,5 MW.

Pertanto si ritiene raggiunta l’autosufficienza e conseguito lo scopo dell’esercitazione allorché si saranno prodotti progetti per la potenza suddetta.

 

 

 

 

 

THEMATIC AREA 1: The reasons for using the microproduction of energy through renewable sources Type of school: senior secondary schools (any type) and junior secondary schools

Classes: all

Aims:

- To get informed about energetic problems and about their infuence on personal and collective lifestyle

-         to know the potentialities of single renewable energies (thermal-solar, photovoltaic, aeolian, hydroelectric, biomasses, hydrogen, tides, geothermal)

- to study how to eliminate, at least partially, the dependency from traditional energetic sources

 

THEMATIC AREA 2: thermal-solar energy

Type of school: senior secondary schools of every type and, just about basic principles,senior classes of junior secondary schools

Classes: starting from class III

Aims:

-         to know how thermal energy deriving from solar radiation can be captured in many ways and used for the several needs (like simple thermal energy for the production of warm water for domestic and sanitary uses, for heating, or in order to obtain refrigerating and mechanical energy)

- to know how better technologies also concur the co-generation of more types of energy – including the possibility of accumulating thermal energy for different uses (also for hydrogen production)

- to evaluate the size of systems for the air conditioning of small units

- to understand how solar energy storage systems  work

- to plan systems for the storage of solar energy (solar towers)

- to study new architectonic shapes

 

 

THEMATIC AREA 3: photovoltaic energy

Types of schools: senior secondary school (preferably, technology-oriented schools) and, on a very simple level, senior classes of junior secondary schools

Aims:

- to know the operation of a photovoltaic generator

-         to know the tranformation and storage of photovoltaic energy

- to know the applications of photovoltaic energy

- to evaluate the size of a photovoltaic system for a living unit and a manifacturing firm

- to learn how to carry out the maintenance of a photovoltaic system

-         to study the use of inverters and their planning

-         to learn how to choose the size and kind of a transformer, and how to use it

- to learn the systems of intaking of energy into a grid

- to learn and apply the set of rules concerning this field

- to study and realize new architectonic shapes

- to study and reduce the impact on the environment

 

THEMATIC AREA 4: production of hydroelectric energy

 Type of school: senior secondary school (preferably, technology-oriented schools) and, on a very simpe level, senior classes of junior secondary schools

Classes: starting from class III

Aims:

-         to learn the problems connected to the production of hydroelectric energy

-         to evaluate the necessary water capacity for the production of one given amount of energy in small dam

- to know the operation of turbines and choose the proper type

- - to learn the systems of intaking of energy into a grid

- to learn how to quantify the impact on the environment

- to learn how to take advantage of the contour of the territory

- to choose a transformer, to evaluate its size and to use it

 

 

THEMATIC AREA 5: aeolian energy

Type of schools: senior secondary school (preferably, technology-oriented schools) and, on a very simpe level, senior classes of junior secondary schools

Classes: starting from class III

Aims:

- to know the principles for the transformation of energy of masses in movement into electric power by means of alternators  powered by windmills

-         to learn the problems connected to the reliability of windmills

- to learn to estimate the impact on the environment and to recognize its importance

- to be able to choose the types of aeolian vanes and of alternators

- to estimate the power of an aeolic system

to learn how to choose the size and kind of a transformer, and how to use it

- to know the problems connected to intaking of energy into a grid

 

THEMATIC AREA 6: energy from low-grade fuel and rubbish

Type of school: senior secondary school (preferably, technology-oriented schools) and, on a very simpe level, senior classes of junior secondary schools

Classes: starting from class III

Aims:

-         to know the necessary technology for the production of energy using low-grade fuel

- to know the necessary technology for the production of energy using rubbish

- to learn the operation of a small power station wich produces electric power using gas derived from rubbish and the use of biomasses in general

- to evaluate the size of a system

- to choose an alternator

to learn how to choose the size and kind of a transformer, and how to use it

- to know the problems connected to intaking of energy into a grid

 

 

THEMATIC AREA 1

Involved disciplines:

-         Physics - Mechanics - Science – machines - Geography - Chemistry - Mathematics - foreign Language - Design

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-         THEMATIC AREA 2 involved disciplines: - Physics - Mechanics - Science –Machines-  Chemistry - Mathematics - foreign Language - Design

 

-         THEMATIC AREA 3 involved disciplines: - Physics - Mechanics - Science - Chemistry - Mathematics - foreign Language - mechanical design - electrical design - Electrotechnics - Electronics - electrical systems - Technologies design and planning - automatic systems –

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-         THEMATIC AREA 4: Involved disciplines: - Physics - Mechanics - Science - Chemistry - Mathematics - foreign Language - mechanical design - Electrical design - Electrotechnics - Electronics - Electrical systems - Technologies design and planning - automatic systems

 

THEMATIC AREA 5 involved disciplines:

- Physics - Mechanics - Science - Chemistry - Mathematics - foreign Language - mechanics Design - Electrical design - Electrotechnics - Electronics - Electrical systems - Technologies design and planning - automatic systems

 

-         THEMATIC AREA 6 involved disciplines:

- Physics - Mechanics - Science - Chemistry - Mathematics - foreign Language - mechanics Design - Electrical design - Electrotechnics - Electronics - Electrical systems - Technologies design and planning - automatic systems

 

 

METHODS

-         thematic indepth courses

-         Planning workshop

-         laboratory experiences

- Realization of plans and models

- Internet search

- bibliographical search

- Collaboration with schools working on the same thematic area

- Collaboration with schools working on different thematic areas

- Collaboration with all the involved chools in order to draw a homogenous plan for energetic self-sufficiency from convertibile sources

- Design with AUTOCAD

- Collaboration with interested companies and agencies

- Conventions with local agencies

 - All plans and reports will be put into the net

 

-         INSTRUMENTS

-         Computer

-         Autocad

-         Software for the electrical and electronical planning

-         Connection to the net

-         laboratory instruments for measurement

-          Electric machines

-         electrical components

-         electronic components

-         mechanical components

-         all materials that are necessary